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真空钎焊炉故障及排除方法

作者:蔡东俊 人气:30358 日期:2024-04-08 08:56:16

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真空钎焊炉日常故障及排除方法:

 

故障出现现象

  故障产生的原因

真空钎焊炉故障排除解决方法

温度控制失灵

1、热电偶断丝

2、温控仪表故障

1、更换新的热电偶

2、按温控仪表说明书进行检修。

真空钎焊炉达不到极限真空度或

抽空时间太长

1、真空钎焊炉真空系统故障

2、真空钎焊炉炉体泄漏、真空钎焊炉内换热器漏水。

3、真空计电阻规管、电离规管损坏

1检查 排除

2 检查真空钎焊炉内换热器

3、更换真空计的规管。

升温功率达不到额定值

1、磁性调压器故障

2、石墨加热管污染,电阻值升高

3、新石墨管电阻率和调压器不匹配。

1、检修 磁性调压器

2、更换新石墨加热管。

3、检查石墨管电阻率。

处理零件表面不亮

1、冷却气体不纯

2、真空度太低

1、确保氮(氩)气纯度99.9996%以上。 含水量、含氧量小于5ppm

2、检查真空钎焊炉的真空系统、冷却系统。

热电偶烧毁

1、热电偶与碳毡相碰

2、热电偶不密封

1、排除真空钎焊炉加热器

2、检查密封圈。

绝缘电阻<1000

       电极周围有碳纤维

 清除飞铜、烘炉处理、清理碳纤维。

真空阀开关失灵

1、压缩空气压力不足

2、电磁阀故障(振动引起电磁体与

   壳体相对运动

1、保证气压不小于0.5MPa 。

2、检修 、加橡胶垫压紧。

机械泵故障

1、不能起动

2、旋转方向反了

3、运转不灵活

4、抽气效率低

5、达不到真空度

1、检查电机起动器开关的位置和过载保护装置与冷却水开关

2、更换电机三相中的二相接线。

3、按说明书修理。

4、油污染、换新油,如无改变则检查真空系统其它部份

5、排除油污染;更换轴端油封;打开镇气阀排空水分。

传动部件运行故障

          限位失灵

把限位和行程开关撞击装置协调一致。

机械增压泵故障

1、不动作

2、异常噪音

3、达不到真空度

1 检查电机起动器开关和过载保护器是否工作

2 排除齿轮精度不够,转子动平衡不好;抽承偏摆误差或

    损坏;联轴节不同轴。

3 更换轴端密封,调整转子与转子,转子与定子,转子与

    端盖的间隙。

 
  

真空钎焊炉定期维护表
厂内进行的
每天      1. 检查冷却塔和储水箱,按需要替换过滤器  。
          2. 依次把粗抽泵油过滤器移到下一泵,按需要替换过滤器。
          3. 检查粗抽泵油位和油温,听听机械上有无问题。
每周      1. 对全部真空炉做冷态泄露检查,最大0.5Pa/H
          2. 检查扩散泵,罗茨泵和维持泵的油位
          3. 给空气压缩机储气罐放气(水)
          4.对所有真空炉控制系统进行检查
每月      1 .校验全部温度仪表
          2. 替换控制箱内的全部空气过滤器
          3. 给炉子的主阀门上机油和黄油
每三个月  1. 校验仪表的校正仪      

                  2.
校验全部真空仪表
                  3.
替换热电偶进行检验
                  4.
真空炉9点均温性测试
半年:  1.氩气管路系统压力测试
             2.
真空炉的热态泄露试验
             3.
露点表校验,给真空泵换油
             4.
替换粗抽泵油和活门

每年: 1. 检查并清刷全部配电柜电路板 
            2.
氩气纯度校验

            3.
检查主变压器油位,替换粗抽泵油分离器
            4.
校验试验各电电气仪表

 

维护表的建议和注释:

  1. 每天的维护:

    • 良好的冷却系统是确保设备正常运行的关键,定期检查和更换过滤器可以提高冷却效果。
    • 对粗抽泵的定期检查是及时发现问题的重要步骤。
  2. 每周的维护:

    • 冷态泄露检查是保障真空系统密封性能的重要手段,0.5 Pa/H的标准是很好的。
    • 对泵的油位检查是保障泵正常工作的必要步骤。
    • 控制系统的定期检查有助于预防潜在的问题。
  3. 每月的维护:

    • 温度仪表的校验是确保工艺温度准确的关键步骤。
    • 替换空气过滤器有助于保持系统的清洁和稳定。
    • 给炉子主阀门上机油和黄油是确保阀门正常运行的维护手段。
  4. 每三个月的维护:

    • 仪表的校正和真空仪表的校验是确保测量准确性的关键步骤。
    • 定期替换和检验热电偶有助于确保温度测量的准确性。
    • 9点均温性测试是评估真空炉均温性的有效方法。
  5. 半年的维护:

    • 氩气管路系统的压力测试和真空炉的热态泄露试验是确保系统稳定性和密封性能的关键步骤。
    • 露点表的校验和真空泵的换油有助于维持真空系统的正常运行。
  6. 每年的维护:

    • 检查和清刷电路板是确保设备电气系统正常运行的关键步骤。
    • 定期检查主变压器油位和气体纯度,以确保设备的可靠性和安全性。
    • 校验电气仪表是确保测量准确性的关键步骤。

       确保按照维护表的周期进行定期维护,并及时处理发现的问题,将有助于延长设备的使用寿命,提高工作效率,减少故障发生的可能性。

 
          真空钎焊炉热电偶常见故障及处理
 
 

热电极变质
故障现象
可能原因
处理方法
热电势比实际值小(显示仪表指示值偏低)
热电极短路
找出短路原因,如因潮湿所致,则需进行干燥;如因绝缘子损坏所致,则需更换绝缘子
热电偶的接线柱处积灰,造成短路
清扫真空钎焊炉内积灰
补偿导线线间短路
找出短路点,加强绝缘或更换补偿导线
热电偶热电极变质
在长度允许的发问下,剪去变质段重新焊接,或更换新热电偶
补偿导线与热电偶极性接反
重新接正确
补偿导线与热电偶不配套
更换相配套的补偿导线
热电偶安装位置不录或插入深度不符合要求
重新按规定安装热电偶
热电偶冷端温度补偿不符合要求
调整热电偶冷端补偿器
热电偶与显示仪表不配套
更抽热电偶或显示仪表使之相配套
热电势比实际值大(显示仪表指示值偏高)
热电偶与显示仪表不配套
更抽热电偶或显示仪表使之相配套
补偿导线与热电偶不配套
更换补偿导线使之相配套
有直流干扰信号进入
排除直流干扰
热电势输出不稳定
热电偶接线柱与热电极接触不良
将接线柱螺丝拧紧
热电偶测量线路绝缘破损,引起断续短路或接地
找出故障点,修复绝缘
热电偶安装不牢或外部震动
紧固热电偶,消除震动或采取减震措施
热电极将断未断
修复或更换热电偶
外界干扰(交流漏电,电磁场感应等)
查出干扰源,采用屏蔽措施
热电偶热电势误差大
更换热电极
热电偶安装位置不当
改变安装位置
热电偶保护管表面积灰
清除积灰

真空钎焊炉压升率不合格
一、漏气
A、密封损坏漏气,优先检查真空钎焊炉门密封圈、电极密封圈、热电偶密封圈等接口密封圈,一般由水压欠造成真空钎焊炉密封圈受热老化。
B、真空钎焊炉壳焊缝开造成内漏或外漏,氩弧焊焊接质量差造成,如果是内漏用氦质谱检漏仪都检不出来。需要加压检漏。
C、联接的换热器漏,真空钎焊炉炉后部分换热器火焰焊接质量差造成,要对真空钎焊炉换热器单独检漏。
D、阀门漏气,真空钎焊炉常用对蝶阀、挡板阀、插板阀、球阀、电磁阀、薄膜,  阀等阀门,阀门的密封圈在不干净的环境中容易损坏密封圈,在有污染的环境中应该先用120号汽油清洗过滤网,在把阀和泵装配好。
二、真空钎焊炉内部材料放气
A、炉壳内壁,在南方天气比较潮湿,真空钎焊炉开炉门后时间长,真空炉内加热室吸潮之后,易造成漏气的假象。
B、保温隔热材料放气,真空钎焊炉用的隔热材料一般有金属、碳材料和陶瓷纤维,陶瓷纤维在低温保温效果好,但吸气特大,碳材料与次之。
C、真空钎焊炉里后冷却换热器表面放气,主要是因为换热器的翅片面积特别大,吸附气体之后还不容易放出来。
D、随炉钎焊工装夹具放气、待钎焊产品的材料放气、尤其是汽车EGR系统的产品ni基钎料装配以后产品没烘干就进真空钎焊
炉。解决以上问题需要进行烘炉。但烘炉对换热器没有多大效果,需要在产品进真空钎焊炉前单独对产品烘干。真空钎焊炉需要在烘炉后充入气体,启动风机进行热风循环才可能解决。
D、虚焊放气及装配螺纹孔内放气,真空钎焊炉壳内壁焊接不好,石墨电极与铜电极没有留放气孔等,这个问题应该在设计制造时解决,实际使用中很难遇到。
三、仪表读数
A、这主要是针对国内真空钎焊炉的真空计,国内真空计的读数是将本来的对数关系使用了分段插值的分段直线关系,这会造成测试压升率时,一段合格一段不合格。
B、真空计使用的电阻规有效测量值是0.1~2500Pa,国内仪表每次使用前都要进行满度和零点的调整,如果没有没有调好,本来只有0.1Pa的变化可能变成1Pa的变化。
C、国外的真空记录仪没有国内的复杂,一般不需要调整,如果显示不准的话,一般可以在大气压下复位就可以。
D、如果设备上有好几种测量仪器,可以相互对照,麦氏计是一种绝对量的真空计,测量范围为0.1~500Pa,可以用麦氏计对电子真空计进行校准。

一些建议和注释:

  1. 漏气方面:

    • 在加压检漏之前,确保进行系统的全面检查,包括所有可能的漏点。
    • 对于焊缝开的情况,除了氦质谱检漏仪,还可以考虑其他方法,如超声波检测。
  2. 真空钎焊炉内部材料放气:

    • 注意湿度对于真空系统的影响,特别是在南方潮湿的环境中。
    • 针对保温隔热材料的选择,可能需要平衡保温效果和气体吸附特性。
  3. 仪表读数方面:

    • 定期校准和调整仪表是确保测量准确性的关键步骤,特别是在使用前进行满度和零点调整。
  4. 烘炉和真空系统操作:

    • 在产品进真空钎焊炉之前确保产品的烘干是关键的,尤其是对于那些容易放气的材料。
    • 对于虚焊和装配螺纹孔内放气的问题,在设计和制造阶段确保这些问题得到充分考虑。

 怎么测真空钎焊炉的压升率:
测量真空钎焊炉的压升率的步骤如下:
准备工作: 在炉子完成运行后,确保炉子处于清洁、冷却和空载状态。
选择时间段: 选择一个时间段,通常在t1到t2之间,以测量真空度的变化。
测量真空度: 在选定的时间段内,测量真空度的两个值,分别标记为P1和P2。确保使用标准的压力单位,即帕斯卡(Pa)。
计算压升率: 使用公式计算压升率,即压升率 = (P2 - P1) / (t2 - t1)。确保使用正确的时间单位,即小时。
比较结果: 将计算得到的压升率与国内和国际的标准进行比较。在国内,标准通常为1.33 Pa/h,而国际上可能更接近0.67 Pa/h。
单位转换: 如果需要将压升率转换为国际单位,可以使用泄露率的单位,即帕斯卡每升每秒(Pa.L/S)。这可以通过将压升率除以炉容积(以升为单位)来实现。
总体而言,确保测量过程的准确性和标准化是关键,以便与国内外的标准进行比较。如果测量结果不符合预期,可能需要进一步检查系统组件,如密封、泵和阀门,以确保真空系统的正常运行。

导致真空钎焊炉压升率不合格的常见问题需要仔细的检查和适当的维护。以下是对每个可能原因的一些额外建议:
密封损坏漏气:
使用丙酮进行检查是一个好的方法,因为它可以检测密封是否完好。
定期检查密封圈的状态,并在有需要时进行更换。
考虑改进水压管理,以减缓密封老化的过程。
壳体焊缝开导致内外漏:
进行定期的焊接质量检查,确保焊接完整性。
使用氦质谱检漏仪可以有效检测内漏,但也要注意外漏的可能性。
确保焊接操作符合相关标准和规范。
换热器漏:
单独检查真空钎焊炉的换热器,特别是焊接部分。
针对换热器进行定期检漏,确保其焊接质量良好。
阀门漏气:
定期检查真空钎焊炉使用的各种阀门,确保它们的密封性能。
在污染环境中,定期清洗和维护阀门,使用适当的清洁剂,如120号汽油。
确保阀门的密封圈在良好状态,定期更换损坏的密封圈。
另外,定期的维护计划和预防性维修可以有助于提高真空钎焊炉的性能和延长设备寿命。如果发现问题,建议及时修复,以防止进一步损害真空系统。最终,确保维护和维修工作符合相关的安全和技术标准。


 

Dong Jun vacuum brazing Technology Co., Ltd.
Address:China Jiangsu province Yangzhou city Weiyang District Weiyang road 349

Person to Contact: Dong-Jun Cai
Switchboard:+86-0-13905275926
Tel:+86-0514-87816911
Fax:+86-0514-87816911
http://www.brazing.com.cn
Switchboard:+86-0514-87816911 E-mail:jsyzcdj@126.com

Customer service de pa rinient :Tel: +86-0-13905275926


China Market Expertise
Contact: Xiangzhen Li
Mobile: 004915209536794
Tel: 004956049180277
Fax: 004956049180278
Adress: Ringenkuhler Street Nr.26, Helsa, Germany
Postal Code: 210018
E-MAIL: info@china-market-expertise.de
Web: www.china-market-expertise.de

 

The contact address of Singapore: 10 Anson Road #05-17
Contact: Feng Guo An
Telephone number: +65-6756 3629
Mobile: +0065-6756 3629
Fax: +0065-6754 8382
E-mail: fengga@el.sg

 

东俊真空钎焊工作室
地址:江苏省扬州市维扬路349号
邮政编码:225000
联系人: 蔡东俊
SKYPE:jsyzcdj
联系手机:13905275926
QQ:649200691
MSN:jsyzcdj@126.com
E-mail: jsyzcdj@126.com
网址:http://www.brazing.com.cn


新加坡联系地址:10 Anson Road #05-17
联系人: Feng Guo An
联系电话:+65-6756 3629
手机:+0065-6756 3629
传 真: +0065-6754 8382
电子邮件:fengga@el.sg

德国联系地址: Ringenkuhler Straße 26
34298 Helsa
联系人:李向珍
联系电话: 004956049180277
手机: 004956049180277
传 真: 004956049180278
电子邮件info@china-market-expertise.de

 

 

www.brazing.com.cn

Vacuum brazing furnace daily failure and troubleshooting methods:

 

Failure phenomenon

 Causes of the failure

Troubleshooting solution of vacuum brazing furnace

Temperature control Failure

1Thermocouple broken wire

2Temperature control instrument failure

1Replace the new thermocouple

2According to the temperature control instrument manual maintenance

The vacuum brazing furnace does not reach the ultimate vacuum or time is too long

1、vacuum brazing furnace vacuum system failure

2Vacuum brazing furnace body leakage, vacuum brazing furnace heat exchanger leakage.

3 The vacuum gauge resistance gauge and the ionization gauge damage

 

1Check, Exclude

Check the vacuum brazing furnace heat exchanger

3Replace the regulation of the vacuum gauge

The heating power does not reach the rated value

1Magnetic voltage regulator failure

2Graphite heating tube pollution, resistance increased

3The new graphite tube resistivity does not match.

1Maintenance of magnetic voltage regulator

2Replace the new graphite heating tube

3Check the graphite tube resistivity

The surface of the processing part is not bright

1、The cooling gas is not pure

2the vacuum is too low

1 to ensure that nitrogen (argon) gas purity of more than 99.9996%. Water content, oxygen content less than 5ppm

2Check the vacuum system and cooling system of vacuum brazing furnace.

Thermocouple burned down

1thermocouple and carbon felt touch

2thermocouple is not sealed

1Excluding vacuum brazing furnace heater

2Check the sealing ring

 

Insulation resistance<1000 Ω

 

  The electrodes are surrounded by carbon fibers

      Remove the fly copper, oven treatment, clean up the carbon fiber

Vacuum valve switch failure

Compressed air pressure is insufficient

2Solenoid valve Failure (Vibration caused by the relative movement of the electromagnet and the shell)

  

1 Ensure that air pressure is not less than 0.5 MPa

2Maintenance, plus rubber pad and tighten

Mechanical pump failure

1Can not start

2 The direction of rotation reversed

3The operation is not flexible

4Low pumping efficiency

5Can not reach the degree of vacuum

1Check the motor starter switch position and overload protection device and cooling water switch

2Replace the two phase wiring in the motor three phase

3Repair according to the instructions

4Oil pollution, for new oil, if no change to check the other parts of the vacuum system.

5The exclusion of oil pollution; replace shaft end oil sealopen the gas ballast valve

The transmission parts Running fault

      Limit failure

Put the limit and impact devices in harmony

Mechanical booster pump failure

1No action

2Abnormal noise

3Not reach the degree of vacuum

1Check whether the motor starter switch and overload protector work

2 Eliminate the gear accuracy is not enough, the rotor dynamic balance is not good; bearing deflection error or damage; coupling different shafts

3 Replace the shaft seal, adjust the rotor and rotor, rotor and stator, rotor and end cover gap

 

Common Faults and Treatment of Thermocouple in Vacuum Brazing Furnace

Failure phenomenon

Possible causes

Processing method

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The thermoelectric potential is smaller than the actual value (display instrument indication value is low)

Thermal electrode short circuit

To find out the cause of short circuit,  such as due to moistureit needs to be dry; If the insulator is damaged, the insulator must be replaced.

The junction of the thermocouple is accumulated dust, causing a short circuit

Cleaning of dust in vacuum brazing furnace

Short circuit between compensation conductor line

Find the short circuit poi, nt, strengthen insulation or replace compensating wires

Thermocouple thermal electrode metamorphism

In the range of allowable length, cut off the metamorphic section re-welding, or replace the new thermocouple

The compensation conductor wire is reversed with the thermocouple polarity

Re-connect correctly

Compensation wire and thermocouple are not matched

Replace the matching compensation wire

Thermocouple installation location is incorrect or insertion depth does not meet requirements

Re-install Thermocouples as required

Thermocouple cold junction temperature compensation does not meet the requirements

Adjust the thermocouple cold junction compensator

Thermocouple and display instruments are not matched

Replace thermocouple or display instrument to make it match

The thermoelectric potential is larger than the actual value (display instrument indication value is high)

Thermocouple and display instruments are not matched

Replace thermocouple or display instrument to make it match

Compensation wire and thermocouple are not matched

Replace the matching compensation wire

There is a DC interference signal to enter

Eliminate DC interference

Thermoelectric output is unstable

Compensating conductor is in poor contact with the hot electrode

Tighten the terminal screws

Thermocouple measuring line insulation damage, causing intermittent short circuit or grounding

Find fault points and repair insulation

Thermocouple installation is not strong or external vibration

Tighten the thermocouple, eliminate vibration or take shock measures

The thermal electrode will be broken

Repair or replace thermocouple

External disturbance (AC leakage, electromagnetic induction, etc.)

Detection of interference sources, the use of shielding measures

Large error of thermocouple thermoelectric potential

Thermoelectrode metamorphism

Replace the hot electrode

Improper installation position of Thermocouple

Change the installation location

Thermocouple protection tube surface dust

Clear dust

 

Vacuum brazing furnace pressure rise rate unqualified

First, the Leak

A. Seal damage leakage, priority check vacuum brazing door seal ring, electrode seal ring, thermocouple sealing ring and other interface seals, generally by water pressure due to vacuum brazing furnace sealing ring aging.

B. Vacuum brazing furnace shell welding cracks resulting in internal leakage or external leakage, poor welding quality caused, If it's an internal leak, it's not detectable by helium mass leak detector.

C. Connection heat exchanger leakage, caused by poor welding quality of heat exchanger in the latter part of vacuum brazing furnace. Need to separate leak detection for vacuum brazing furnace heat exchanger.

D. Valve leakage,vacuum brazing furnace commonly used butterfly valve, baffle valve,  flashboard valve, ball valve, solenoid valves, membrane valves and other valves, the valve seal ring in the dirty environment is easy to damage, in a polluted environment should be filtered and then into the valve and pump.

Second, the vacuum brazing furnace internal material deflated

A. The inner wall of the shell, in the south more humid weather, moisture absorption, easy to cause leakage of the illusion.

B. Thermal insulation materials deflated, vacuum brazing furnace insulation is generally metal, carbon materials and ceramic fiber, ceramic fiber in low-temperature insulation effect is good, but inspiratory large,carbon material and second.

C. Vacuum brazing furnace heat exchanger deflation, mainly because the heat exchanger fin area is particularly large, adsorption gas is not easy to release.

D. With the furnace brazing fixture deflated, to be brazed product material deflated, especially the car EGR system products Ni-based solder assembly after the product did not dry into the vacuum brazing furnace.To solve the above problems need to bake oven. But the bake oven does not have much effect on the heat exchanger,  and needs to be dried separately before the product enters the vacuum brazing furnace. The vacuum brazing furnace needs to be filled with gas after the oven, start the fan for hot air circulation can be resolved.

E. Virtual welding deflated and assembly threaded hole is deflated, vacuum brazing furnace shell inner wall welding is bad, graphite electrode and the copper electrode did not leave a vent hole, etc., this problem should be solved during design and manufacture, it's hard to meet in practical use.

Third, the instrument readings

A. This is mainly for the domestic vacuum brazing furnace vacuum gauge, the domestic vacuum gauge reading is the original logarithmic relationship using the segmentation of the interpolation of the linear relationship between the line, which will result in test pressure rise rate, a section of qualified and a section of unqualified.

B. Vacuum gauge used resistance gauge effective measurement value is 0.1 ~ 2500 Pa, the domestic instrument should be used before the full and zero adjustment, if there is no tune, had only 0.1Pa changes may become 1Pa changes.

C. The foreign vacuum recorder measurement is not complicated and generally does not need to be adjusted, and if the display is not allowed, generally can be reset at atmospheric pressure can be.

 

D. If there are several measuring instruments on the device, they can be compared with each other, McLeod gauge is an absolute amount of vacuum gauge with a measuring range of 0.1~500PA,  you can use McLeod gauge to calibrate the electronic vacuum gauge.

Regular maintenance table for vacuum brazing furnaces

In the factory

Day
1.Check the cooling tower and the storage tank and replace the filter as needed
2.Move the coarse pump oil filter to the next pump in turn ,replace the filter as needed
3.Check the crude pump oil level and oil temperature, listen to the mechanical problems
 
 
Weekly
1. All vacuum furnace to do cold leakage inspection, the maximum 0.5Pa / H
2.Check diffusion pump, roots pump and maintain pump oil level
3.air compressor release air
4.Check all vacuum furnace control systems
Monthly
1.Check all temperature instruments
2.Replace all air filters in the control cabinet
3.Put the oil and butter on the main valve of the furnace
Every three months
1.Calibration instrument for calibration instrument
2.Check all vacuum instruments
3.Replace the thermocouple for inspection
4.Vacuum furnace temperature  uniformity  test
Six months
1.Argon pipeline system pressure test
2.Vacuum furnace thermal leakage test
3. Check the dew point meter, change oil for vacuum pump
4. Replace the crude pump oil and the valve
Every year
1. Check and brush all circuit boards
2. Argon Purity Calibration
3.Check the main transformer oil level, replace the crude pump oil separator
4.Calibration test of each meter

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dong Jun vacuum brazing Technology Co., Ltd.
Address:China Jiangsu province Yangzhou city Weiyang District Weiyang road 349

Person to Contact: Dong-Jun Cai
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Tel:+86-0514-87816911
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